Do helicopters use leaded gas?
About one-third of all gasoline-powered aircraft, which include some of the most heavily used small airplanes and helicopters, require leaded gasoline to provide needed octane levels.
Aviation kerosene, also known as QAV, is the fuel that fuels airplanes and helicopters equipped with jet turbines, turboprops or turbo-fans.
Jet aircraft and turbine-powered, propeller aircraft do not use avgas, but instead use fuels very similar to kerosene, which does not contain a lead additive.
Lead is added to Avgas to help boost fuel octane, prevent knock and engine issues that could result in a loss of compression. Compression loss could cause an engine to stop running, impacting flight safety. Historically, lead was added to a variety of transportation fuels, including motor vehicle gasoline.
Though the use of leaded gasoline in most motor vehicles was banned 25 years ago, leaded aviation fuel is still used in nearly 170,000 piston-engine aircraft across 20,000 airports. EPA estimates that emissions from these airplanes account for about 70% of lead released into the atmosphere.
JP-8, or JP8 (for "Jet Propellant 8") is a jet fuel, specified and used widely by the US military.
Piston-powered helicopters in North America and Western Europe generally fill their fuel tank with aviation gasoline grade 100LL, gasoline containing three times the amount of tetraethyl lead per liter found in car gasoline. Other gasoline grades found in aviation are the AVGAS 100, and the AVGAS 82UL.
Aviation gasoline (avgas) is the aviation fuel most commonly used in piston-engine aircraft within the general aviation community. Avgas remains the only transportation fuel in the United States to contain lead. More than 222,600 registered piston-engine aircraft can operate on leaded avgas.
Leaded gasoline was gradually taken off the U.S. market
A combination of health and environmental concerns led to a ban on most uses of leaded gasoline in the United States.
Jet aircraft used for commercial transport do not operate on a fuel containing lead. This proposed endangerment finding will undergo public notice and comment, and after evaluating comments on the proposal, EPA plans to issue any final endangerment finding in 2023.
Why do old cars need leaded gas?
Lead is needed to protect compounds in the fuel valves and without it, old engines can suffer serious damage and wear. Not only that, but ignition firing can be affected and may need to be reset and adjusted to work with different types of modern fuel.
When faced with the removal of lead as the primary octane provider in gasoline, refiners had two available alternatives, BTEX and ethanol. The refining industry invested in additional refining capacity to replace lead with BTEX, a high-octane petroleum refining product.
Lead is used in racing fuels because it's a very effective octane booster. As a matter of fact, leaded fuels are often credited for allowing higher compression, higher efficiency engines in World War II era aircraft. Increased power made some WWII airplanes like the P-51 Mustang legendary performers!
In fact, it is prefered. Lead is in fuel primarily to lubricate the exhaust valve and valve seat in a 4 stroke engine.
Using leaded avgas in a modern car would ruin components such as the catalytic converter. Conversely, Jet-A wouldn't work in a gas engine. It would be like putting diesel fuel in your gas-powered car, it just won't run.
Unleaded gasoline was introduced in the 1970s when health problems from lead became apparent. In the United States, leaded gasoline for use in on-road vehicles was completely phased out as of January 1, 1996. Most other countries have also stopped using leaded gasoline in vehicles.
The configuration consists of three or four fuel tanks attached to a refueling system. The system contains 2,400 gallons of JP4/8 excluding the CH-47 internal fuel load of 1050 gals.
Based on 450 annual owner-operated hours and $7.00-per-gallon fuel cost, the CESSNA Caravan XP42 (Blackhawk) has total variable costs of $461,700.00, total fixed costs of $186,297.00, and an annual budget of $647,997.00. This breaks down to $1,439.99 per hour.
Marines don't fly Blackhawks for a couple of reasons. First, Marine Corps aircraft have to be able to operate off of a ship. The MV22 Osprey and the CH53E Super Stallion are both huge, but are capable of adjusting to fit on a flight deck. Both aircraft are large, but they actually fold for easy storage.
Of course, 100LL fuel, which the helicopter burns, costs anywhere from $4.50 to $7.00 per gallon.
How much does a gallon of airplane fuel cost?
The cost per gallon of fuel in January 2023 ($3.28) was up 14 cents (4.3%) from December 2022 ($3.14) and up $1.37 (71.7%) from January 2019. Total January 2023 fuel expenditure ($4.63B) was up 0.2% from December 2022 ($4.63B) and up 70.6% from pre-pandemic January 2019.
Actually, helicopters have a built-in mechanical control called the collective pitch lever that allows them to descend slowly and land even if the engine dies. This maneuver is called autorotation.
Actually, you can—leaded fuel is still manufactured for the American market, despite being officially banned by the EPA in the 1990s. Leaded gasoline is technically illegal for on-road use. However, suppliers can sell leaded fuel for race cars, off-road-only vehicles, aircraft, and other specific non-road uses.
So when it comes to leaded vs unleaded, the rule of thumb is unleaded if you have oxygen sensors and leaded if you don't. In the case of older engines, any leaded fuel with an octane of 110 or close to it works great.
Extremely high lead levels can lead to seizures, coma, and death. Lower levels tend to cause less detectable harm, but there's no safe level of lead exposure: Scientists' current best guess is that any lead exposure at all causes harm. Many of lead's dangers have been known for decades.
Despite the worldwide phase out in leaded gasoline, environmental lead remains pervasive, causing some 900,000 deaths a year, according to the 2017 Lancet report.
The US Environment Protection Agency, for example, issued guidelines to reduce lead content in 1983. But it wasn't until 1986 – six decades after its introduction – that Japan became the first country to ban it completely. Three and a half decades later – in 2021 – Algeria became the last country to ban it.
This is why you don't see many unleaded racing fuels with octane ratings much over 100, while their leaded counterparts can get close to 120 octane. Another advantage: lead doesn't have a significant effect on combustion properties like flame speed.
Diesel fuel has an octane rating of 25-40. Mixing 2% diesel fuel into gasoline will lower the overall octane rating by 1 point. Getting 10% diesel contamination lowers octane by 5 points, which is enough to create problems in most engines.
The fuels like petrol and diesel contain lead. This lead is emitted in the gaseous exhaust released by the vehicles. The lead in the fuel is responsible for damage to the automobile parts like the converters. The lead may cause severe problems in humans and other animals.
What was the octane of gas in 1970?
|Year||Average Compression Ratio for New Light Vehicles||Average Octane Rating (AKI)|
Ethanol can also corrode fiberglass and rubber, often found in classic cars. To keep your classic car in great shape, we recommend filling it with non-ethanol gas.
Leaded fuel was withdrawn because lead is a cumulative toxin, found to affect human health adversely. Modern refining methods can provide the necessary fuel quality (octane) without added lead.
The Shelf Life of Fuel
Regular gasoline has a shelf life of three to six months, while diesel can last up to a year before it begins to degrade. On the other hand, organic-based Ethanol can lose its combustibility in just one to three months due to oxidation and evaporation.
Tetraethyl Lead is a colorless, oily liquid with a sweet, musty odor. It is used as a gasoline additive to prevent “knocking” in motors.
During the late 1960's and early 1970's, premium pump gas octanes of 98-102 were commonly available everywhere at name brand gas stations, During the later 1970s, premium octane ratings came down to the middle 95-98, and by the middle 80's name brand premium came down to 94-95 octane.
Octane level is one of the most significant differences between racing fuel and fuel for street vehicles. The gasoline at a gas station ranges from 87 to 93 octane. Racing fuel ranges from 100 to 120 octane. Since racing engines operate with higher compression ratios, they need higher octane racing fuel to operate.
Simply the best non-oxygenated unleaded racing gasoline on the market, C10 does not contain any metal compounds and will not harm catalytic converters or oxygen sensors. Its performance record includes many past SCCA and Ferrari World Challenge championships.
(May 18, 1889 - November 2, 1944), an American chemist, developed the tetraethyl lead (TEL) additive for gasoline and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and held over a hundred patents.
All of the later model boats have high compression engines that were designed to run on 93 octane (US Octane) fuel. They all have the ability to run on 87 but that does NOT mean you are getting the best out of your boat.
What kind of gas does a Mercury outboard take?
“We recommend 87 octane for both our two- and four-stroke motors. We stress the importance of a good, name-brand gasoline.” Additionally, Grigsby says Yamaha recommends the regular use of fuel additives, such as conditioner, stabilizer, combustion-chamber cleaner and gas-line anti-freeze.
Avgas (aviation gasoline) is used by small aircraft, light helicopters and vintage piston-engined aircraft.
Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood. Wear protective gloves/clothing and eye/face protection. Wash thoroughly after handling.
Here are the hazard and precaution statements for 100LL: H225 Highly flammable liquid and vapour. H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways.
Unleaded gasoline traditionally has cost from 3 to 10 cents more at the pump. Currently, the average retail prices for regular leaded gasoline is $1.11, for regular unleaded, $1.20, and for premium unleaded, $1.32. The overall average retail price of gasoline is $1.24, according to Mr. Lundberg.
Older cars can run on unleaded gas, but avoid ethanol.
JP-5, JP-8, and Jet A fuels are colorless liquids that are flammable and smell like kerosene. These fuels are a mixture of many compounds called hydrocarbons.
Helicopters nowadays fly an average distance of anywhere between 250 to 400 miles on a single tank. There are, however, better-equipped helicopters, such as certain military helicopters, that can reach up to 1200 miles.
The average cost for an hour in a two-seat helicopter with a pilot is approximately $300. That figure increases for larger flights with more passengers.
How much does it cost to fuel a helicopter for an hour?
One of the biggest variable costs is fuel. An average medium size SAR helicopter such as the AW139 uses around 150 gallons of fuel per hour. With the cost of fuel at around $3 per gallon (Europe), that equates to around $450 per hour in fuel costs alone.
Generally speaking, a commercial helicopter can fly 100 miles in about an hour or less. However, if you're looking for something more exciting, some helicopters are capable of reaching speeds up to 200 mph which would make it possible to cover that distance in just half an hour!
When oil or hydraulic fluid contaminates the air supply system, you will notice an unpleasant and unusual smell (“fumes”). Oil fumes are often described as smelling like “dirty socks,” or as being musty, moldy, or foul. Hydraulic fluid fumes often have a distinctive acrid odor.
Why does it smell like fuel when waiting for takeoff? The most common occasion when the airplane smells like fuel is during pushback from the gate, but it can happen anywhere on the ground. The reason is that the air conditioning on an airliner works by tapping off some air from the compressor stage in the engines.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the EPA have not classified JP-5, JP-8, or Jet A fuels as to their carcinogenicity. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified JP-5, JP-8, and Jet A as Group 3 carcinogens (not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans).
Jet-A is used in a much higher volume than 100LL. All the jet engine commercial aircraft each day burn through orders of magnitude more Jet-A than piston aircraft burn through 100LL. That means that there is a much higher production volume, and therefore a cost savings as a result.
Airport fees for these popular airports range from a few hundred dollars for a light turboprop to over $2,000 for a large jetliner. In some cases, private aircraft owners may be required to pay additional fees in addition to landing and other fees.
If you buy jet fuel to be pumped into the tanks of your private aircraft, the seller (who has a license to buy and then sell the fuel) charges you the price including tax. You need no license to buy the fuel.
Turbine-engine helicopters can reach around 25,000 feet. But the maximum height at which a helicopter can hover is much lower - a high performance helicopter can hover at 10,400 feet.
The life cycle of a helicopter lasts several decades, and helicopters can maintain their economic viability well into their lifespan. But as technology in general develops, at some point helicopter equipment becomes obsolete.